Microsoft Windows Version History

Microsoft Windows was announced by Bill Gates on November 10, 1983. Microsoft introduced Windows as a graphical user interface for MS-DOS, which was introduced two years ago. The product line evolved from the operating environment in the 1990s on two lines of development in a complete, modern operating system, each with its own code base.

The first versions of Microsoft Windows (1.0 to 3.11) were graphical shells that ran on MS-DOS. Later, Windows 95, although still based on MS-DOS, had its own operating system, using 16-bit DOS-based kernel and 32-bit user space. Windows 95 introduced a number of features that have been part of this product since its inception, including the Start Menu, Taskbar, and Windows Explorer (renaming File Explorer to Windows 8). In 1997, Microsoft released Internet Explorer 4, which included the (then) controversial Windows Desktop Update. It aims to integrate Internet Explorer and the web into the user interface and has also brought many new features to Windows, such as displaying JPEG images in Windows Explorer as a desktop wallpaper and single window navigation.

Ability In 1998, Microsoft released Windows 98, which also included Windows Desktop Update and Internet Explorer 4 by default. The inclusion of Internet Explorer 4 and the desktop update led to a case of mistrust in the United States. Windows 98 also includes Plug and Play, which allows devices to work when plugged in without the need for a system reboot or manual configuration, and requires out-of-the-box USB support. The latest version of Windows, DOS-based, Windows Me was aimed at users and was released in 2000. It introduced System Restore, Help and Support Center, modern versions of Disk Defragmenter and other system tools.

In 1993, Microsoft Windows released Windows NT 3.1, the first version of the newly developed Windows NT operating system. Unlike the Windows 9x series of operating systems, it is a fully 32-bit operating system. NT3.1 introduced NTFS, a file system designed to replace the old File Alteration Table (FAT) that used DOS and DOS-based Windows operating systems. In 1996, Windows NT 4.0 was released, which included a full 32-bit version of Windows Explorer specifically written to make the operating system work just like Windows 95. Windows NT was originally designed to be used on advanced systems and servers.

However, with the release of Windows 2000, Windows 95 and Windows 98 added many user-centric features, such as Windows Desktop. Update: Internet Explorer 5, USB support and Windows Media Player. These user-oriented features were continued and further expanded in Windows XP, introducing a new theme called Luna, a more user-friendly interface, an updated version of Windows Media Player and Internet Explorer, and Extended features of Windows Me, such as Help and Support Center and System Restore. Windows Vista introduced features such as user account controls to protect the Windows operating system against computer viruses and other malicious software.

New features to replace Outlook Express include Windows Aero, the latest version of standard games (such as Solitaire), Windows Movie Maker, and Windows Mail. Nevertheless, Windows Vista has been criticized for its poor performance on older hardware and the current system requirements. Windows 7 followed two and a half years later, and despite the technically advanced system requirements, reviewers noted that it outperformed Windows Vista. Windows 7 also removed a number of additional features, such as Windows Movie Maker, Windows Photo Gallery, and Windows Mail, requiring users to download a separate Windows Live accessory to access these features and other online services.

Free upgrades to Windows 8 and Windows 8.1, Windows 8 introduced a number of controversial changes, such as changing the Start menu with the Start screen, removing the Aero glass interface in favor of a flat, colorful interface. The introduction of the “Metro” app (later renamed the Universal Windows Platform App) and the Charm Bar user interface element, all of which received considerable criticism from reviewers.

The current version of Mirosoft Windows, Windows 10, reintroduced the Start menu and enhanced the ability to run Universal Windows Platform apps in Windows instead of always in full screen. Windows 10 is very popular, with many reviewers saying that Windows 10 is what Windows 8 should be. Windows 10 also marks the latest version of the traditionally released Windows. Instead, “feature updates” are released twice a year with names such as “Creator Update” and “Fall Creator Update” that introduce new capabilities.

Windows 1.0

The first free version of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, was released on November 20, 1985, and gained little popularity. Prior to the implementation of the Windows system, the project was abbreviated as “Interface Manager” – contrary to popular belief that this is the original name of Windows, and Rowland Hanson, head of marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company that the Windows name It will be more attractive.

window-1.0

For consumersWindows 1.0 was not a complete operating system, but an “operating environment” that enhanced MS-DOS, and added to the flaws that followed.The first version of Microsoft Windows included a simple graphics painting program called Windows Paint. Write Windows, a simple word processor; an appointment calendar; a card filer; a notepad A watch A control panel; a computer terminal; Clipboard ؛ And Ram Driver also included a game called MS DOS Executive and Reversi.Microsoft is working with Apple Computers to develop applications for Apple’s new Macintosh computer, which includes a graphical user interface. As part of related business negotiations, Microsoft licensed some aspects of the Macintosh user interface from Apple.

Later in the lawsuit, the district court designated these aspects as “screen displays.” In the development of Windows 1.0, Microsoft deliberately restricted borrowing of certain GUI elements from the Macintosh user interface in order to comply with its license. For example, Windows only showed “tiles” on the screen. That is, they could not overlap or dominate each other.

Windows 2.x

The Microsoft Windows version 2 came out on December 9, 1987, and became a little more popular than its predecessor. Much of the popularity of Windows 2.0 came from the addition of Microsoft’s new graphical applications, Excel and Word for Windows, as “runtime versions.” They can be run from MS-DOS, execute Windows for the duration of their activity, and shut down Windows upon exit.

windows-2.x

Microsoft Windows got a major boost when Aldus Page Maker appeared in the Windows version, before it only ran on Macintosh. Some computer historians [who?] Predict the beginning of the success of Windows, the first major and non-Microsoft application for Windows.

 

Version 2.0x uses real-mode memory, which limits it to a maximum of 1 megabyte of memory. In such a configuration, it can run under another multi-tasker like DESQview, which used 286 safe mode.

Later, two new versions were released: Windows / 286 2.1 and Windows / 386 2.1. Like previous versions of Windows, Windows / 286 2.1 used real-mode memory, but was the first version to support high memory areas. Windows / 386 2.1 had a safe mode kernel with LIM-standard EMS emulation. All Windows and DOS-based applications at the time were in real mode, running on secure mode kernel using Virtual 8086 mode, new with 80386 processor

Version 2.03, and later 3.0, encountered Apple’s challenges regarding its overlapping Windows and other features. . Judge William Schwarzer dismissed all but 10 of Apple’s 189 claims of copyright infringement, ruling that most of the remaining 10 were above non-specific opinions.

Windows 3.0

Windows 3.0, released in May 1990, improves capabilities in native use. Introducing virtual memory allows users to optimize multi-task software based on older MS-DOS versions of Windows / 386.

The Windows 3.0 user interface ultimately resembles a serious competitor to a Macintosh computer user interface. Thanks to the VGA video card, PC had improved graphics up to that point, and Safe / Enhanced mode allowed Windows applications to use more memory in a more painful way than their DOS counterparts. Windows 3.0 can run in real, standard, or 386 enhanced modes, and was compatible with any Intel processor from 8086/8088 to 80286 and 80386. This is the first version to run Windows programs in safe mode, although the enhanced 386 mode kernel is an improved version of the safe mode kernel in Windows / 386.

windows-3.0

Windows 3.0 got two updates. A few months after the introduction, Windows 3.0a was released as a maintenance release, fixing bugs and improving stability. A “multimedia” version of Windows 3.0, with multimedia extensions 1.0, was released in October 1991. It was built with “multimedia upgrade kits”, which included CD-ROM drives and sound cards, such as Creative Labs Sound Blaster Pro. This version was a forerunner of multimedia features that were available in Windows 3.1 (first released in April 1992) and later, and was part of Microsoft’s specification for multimedia PCs.

The above features and growing market support from application software developers made Windows 3.0 a huge success, selling 10 million copies in the two years before the release of version 3.1. Windows 3.0 has become a major source of revenue for Microsoft, prompting the company to reconsider its earlier plans. Support was discontinued on December 31, 2001.

OS/2

Since the mid-1980s, Microsoft Windows and IBM have been collaborating to develop OS / 2 as a successor to DOS. OS / 2 will take full advantage of the aforementioned secure mode and up to 16 MB of memory of the Intel 80286 processor. OS / 2 1.0, released in 1987, supports conversion and multitasking and allows DOS executables to run.IBM licensed Windows GUI as a presentation manager for OS / 2, and both companies said it and Windows 2.0 would be almost identical. Presentation Manager was not available with OS / 2 until version 1.1, which was released in 1988.

Its API was not compatible with Windows. Version 1.2, released in 1989, introduced a new file system, HPFS, to replace the FAT file system.Controversy arose in the Microsoft / IBM relationship until early 1990s. They collaborated to develop their PC operating system, and access each other’s code. Microsoft wanted to further develop Windows, while IBM wanted future work to be based on OS / 2. In an effort to resolve this tension, IBM and Microsoft agreed that IBM would develop OS / 2 2.0, replacing OS / 2 1.3 and Windows 3.0, while Microsoft OS S / 2 will replace 3.0, after which OS / 2 will be successful. 2 2.0.

os/2

However, the deal soon fell apart, and Microsoft / IBM ties were terminated. IBM continued to develop OS / 2, while Microsoft renamed its (as yet unknown) OS / 2 3.0 to Windows NT. Both retain the right to use OS / 2 and Windows technology until the end of the agreement. However, Windows NT has to be rewritten, mostly independently (see below).

Following the provisional version 1.3, IBM released OS / 2 version 2.0 in 1992 to eliminate many of the remaining issues with the 1.x series. This was a huge improvement: it included a new, object-oriented GUI, Workplace Shell (WPS). , which included a desktop and was considered by many to be the best feature of OS / 2. Microsoft will imitate most of it later in Windows 95. Version 2.0 also provided a full 32-bit API, offered smooth multitasking, and took advantage of the 4GB of address space provided by Intel 80386.

However, most of the system has 16 bit codes internally which are required, among other things, device drivers should also have 16 bit codes. This was one of the reasons for the chronic shortage of OS / 2 drivers for modern devices. Version 2.0 can also run DOS and Windows 3.0 programs, as IBM retained the right to use DOS and Microsoft Windows code as a result of the breakdown.

Windows 3.1X

In response to the upcoming release of OS / 2 2.0, Microsoft developed Windows 3.1 (first released in April 1992), which includes a number of improvements to Windows 3.0, such as try-type scalable fonts (with Apple). Co-developed) Disk Performance Improvements 386 Enhanced Mode, Multimedia Support, and Bug Fix. It also removed Real Mode and only ran on 80286 or better processors. Microsoft later released Windows 3.11, a touchup of Windows 3.1 that included all patches and updates since the release of Windows 3.1 in 1992.

windows-3.1x

In 1992 and 1993, Microsoft released Windows for Workgroups (WfW), which was available as an add-on for existing Windows 3.1 installations, and in versions that included a base Windows environment and networking extension in one package. Does Windows for Workgroups include improved network drivers, protocol stacks, and support for peer-to-peer networking? There were two versions of Windows for the workgroup, WfW 3.1 and WfW 3.11. Unlike previous versions, Windows for Workgroups 3.11 only ran in 386 enhanced formats, and requires at least an 80386SX processor. An optional download for WFW was the “Wolverine” TCP / IP protocol stack, which provides easy access to the Internet through corporate networks.

All of these versions continued the impressive sales pace of version 3.0. Although the 3.1x series still lacked most of the key features of OS / 2, such as long file names, a desktop, or system protection against malicious requests, Microsoft quickly overhauled IBMPC. Occupied OS and GUI markets. Windows API has become the de facto standard for user software.

Windows NT 3.x

Meanwhile, Microsoft continued to develop Windows NT. The original architect of the system was Dave Cutler, one of the leading architects of VMS at Digital Devices Corporation (later acquired by Compaq, now part of Hewlett-Packard). Microsoft hired him to succeed OS / 2 in October 1988, but Cutler created a brand new system instead. Cutler was developing a follow-on on a VMS called Mica in DEC, and when DEC left the project, he brought the expertise and about 20 engineers with him to Microsoft. The DEC also admitted that it had brought Mica’s code to Microsoft and sued it. [16] Microsoft eventually paid 150 million and agreed to support DEC’s Alpha CPU chip at NT.

Windows NT Workstation (Microsoft Marketing wants Windows NT to be a continuation of Windows 3.1) reached out to developers in beta form at the Professional Developers Conference in San Francisco in July 1992. At the conference, Microsoft planned to replace Windows NT and Windows 3.1 (Windows 95, code code Chicago), uniting the two into one operating system. The successor’s code name was Cairo. According to Microsoft’s expectations, Cairo was a very difficult project and as a result, NT and Chicago will not be able to unite until Windows XP, the business-based, pre-Windows 2000 system bolts and gears. Not to be outdone, it was XP that was sold to home users like Windows 95 and was seen as the last unified OS. Parts of Cairo have not yet made their way into Windows until 2020: in particular, the WinFS file system, Cairo’s most sensitive object file system. Microsoft has announced that it has discontinued separate releases of WinFS for Windows XP and Windows Vista [18] and will gradually add technologies developed for WinFS to other products and technologies. , Especially Microsoft Windows SQL Server.

There was a lack of driver support due to the increasing difficulty of programming in dealing with NT’s advanced hardware abstract model. This issue completely affected the NT line through Windows 2000. Programmers have complained that it is very difficult to write drivers for NT, and hardware developers are not bothered to develop drivers for a small segment of the market. Furthermore, although the system allows for good performance and full exploitation of resources, it also lacked resources on limited hardware, and thus was only suitable for larger, more expensive machines.

However, these same features made Windows NT the perfect choice for the LAN server market (which boomed in 1993, as Office networking became more common). NT also had advanced network connectivity options and NTFS, an efficient file system. Windows NT version 3.51 was Microsoft’s entry into this field, and it snatched the market share from Novell (the dominant player) in the following years.

One of the biggest developments Microsoft initially developed for Windows NT was a 32-bit API, replacing Legacy with a 16-bit Windows API. This API was called Win32, and since then Microsoft has called the old 16-bit API Win16. There were three levels of implementation of the Win32 app: a complete one for Windows NT, a subset for Chicago (originally called Win32C) missing features that were primarily for enterprise users (at the moment) Interests such as security and Unicode support, and a more limited subset called Win32s that can be used on Windows 3.1 systems. In this way, Microsoft tried to ensure some compatibility between the Chicago design and Windows NT, although the two systems had radically different internal architectures.

Windows NT was the first Windows operating system based on a hybrid kernel. Hybrid Dana Carnegie was inspired by Richard Rashid’s Mitch Micro kernel at Mellon University, but without meeting all the criteria for pure micro kernel.

Since its release, Windows NT 3.x has gone through three versions (3.1, 3.5, and 3.51), the changes were primarily internal and reflected back-end changes. The 3.5 release includes support for new types of hardware, improved performance and data reliability. The release of 3.51 was primarily to update the win32C app, which included software for the win32C API in Windows 95.

Windows 95

After Windows 3.11, Microsoft began developing a new user-oriented version of the Chicago operating system called Code. Chicago was designed to support 32-bit older multitasking, such as OS-2 and Windows NT, although 16-bit kernels will remain for previous compatibility. The win32 api, previously introduced with Windows NT, was adopted as a standard 32-bit programming interface, in which Win16 compatibility was secured through a technique known as “thinking“. A new object-based GUI was not originally planned as part of the release, although elements of the Cairo user interface were borrowed and other aspects of its release (especially plug and play) joined as soon as it slipped.

Microsoft did not convert all Windows code to 32-bit, parts of it remained 16-bit (despite not using direct real mode) due to compatibility, performance, and development time. Additionally, it was necessary to move design decisions from previous versions of Windows for backwards compatibility reasons, even if those design decisions no longer correspond to the more modern computing environment. These factors eventually began to affect the performance and stability of the operating system.

Microsoft Windows Marketing adopted Windows 95 as a product name for Chicago when it was released on August 24, 1995. Microsoft has doubly benefited from its release: First, it made it impossible for users to run Windows 95 on a cheap, non-Microsoft DOS. Secondly, although DOS traces were never completely removed from the system and MS DOS 7 would have been briefly loaded as part of the booting process, Windows 95 applications would have grown to a total of 386 Went into air mode, with flat 32-bit address space and virtual. Note.

These features make it possible to address 2GB of virtual RAM (with an additional 2GB for the operating system) for win32 applications, and theoretically they can inadvertently store memory space for win32 applications. But was prevented from spoiling. In this regard, Windows 95 has moved closer to Windows NT, although Windows 95/98 / May did not support more than 512 megabytes of physical RAM without explicit system opportunities.

windows-95

IBM continued to market OS / 2, developing later versions in OS / 2 3.0 and 4.0 (also called WARP). In response to complaints about the high demand for OS / 2 2.0 on computer hardware, version 3.0 has been significantly improved for both speed and size. Prior to the release of Windows 95, OS / 2 Warp 3.0 was even pre-installed with several major German hardware vendor chains. However, with the release of Windows 95, OS / 2 began to lose market share.

It is impossible to choose a specific reason why OS / 2 failed to gain a large market share. Although OS / 2 continues to run Windows 3.1 applications, it lacks support for anything other than the win32 API’s Win32s subset (see above). Unlike Windows 3.1, IBM did not have access to the source code of Windows 95 and was unwilling to commit to the time and resources required to mimic the win32 API. IBM later introduced OS / 2 in the United States v. Microsoft case, in which Microsoft was accused of unfair marketing tactics.

Microsoft has released five different versions of Windows 95.

  • Windows 95 – Original Release
  • Windows 95 A – Included Windows 95 OSR1 installation slipped
  • Windows 95B (OSR2) – includes several major enhancements, including Internet Explorer (IE) 3.0 and full FAT32 file system support
  • Windows 95B USB (OSR2.1) – Includes basic USB support
  • Windows 95C (OSR2.5) – Includes all of the above features, namely 4.0 This last 95 version was developed

OSR2, OSR2.1, and OSR2.5 were not released to the general public, but were only available to OEMs that could be loaded onto computers on the OS. Some companies have sold new hard drives with OSR2 already installed (officially justified as needed due to hard drive capacity).

The first Microsoft Plus! The Ad One Pack was sold in Windows 95.

Windows NT 4.0

Windows NT 4.0 was the successor to 3.5 (1994) and 3.51 (1995). Microsoft released Windows NT 4.0 for manufacturing in July 1996, one year after the release of Windows 95. The key new features include Windows 95’s new Explorer Shell, scalability and basic architecture, and features improvements in Cornell, User32, COM and MSRPC. [19]

Windows NT 4.0 came in four versions:

  • Windows NT 4.0 Workstation
  • Windows NT 4.0 Server
  • Windows NT 4.0 Server and Enterprise Edition (8V includes support for SMP and clustering)
  • Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server

Windows 98

On June 25, 1998, Microsoft released Windows 98 (code name Memphis). It includes new hardware drivers and a FAT32 file system that supports disk partitions larger than 2GB (previously introduced in Windows 95 OSR2). USB support in Windows 98 has been sold as an improvement over Windows 95. The release continued to controversially include the Internet Explorer browser with the operating system, beginning with the Windows 95 OEM service release 1.

windows-98The United States v. Microsoft case is to address the question of whether Microsoft is introducing unfair practices in the market to eliminate competition from other companies such as Netscape. In 1999, Microsoft released the second edition of Windows 98, an interim release.

One of the notable new features was the addition of Internet connection sharing, a form of network address translation that allows multiple machines on a LAN (local area network) to share an Internet connection. Hardware support was added by device drivers and this version was shipped with Internet Explorer 5, with many minor glitches that were present in the first edition, leading to a stable release of Windows 9x Family.

Windows 2000

Microsoft released Windows 2000 on February 17, 2000. Version number is Windows NT 5.0. Windows 2000 has four official service packs. It was successfully deployed in both server and workstation markets. One of the most important features of Windows 2000 was the Active Directory, a complete replacement of the NT 4.0 Windows Server domain model, which enabled the use of industry-standard technologies such as DNS, LDAP, to connect machines to each other. And build on Kerberos.

windows-2000

Terminal services, previously only available as a separate edition of NT4, were extended to all versions of the server. Windows 98 also included a number of features, such as an improved Device Manager, Windows Media Player, and a revised DirectX that made it possible for many modern games to work on the NT kernel for the first time. Windows 2000 is also the last NT kernel Windows operating system due to lack of product activation.

While Windows 2000 upgrades were available for Windows 2000 and Windows 98, it was not for home users.

Windows 2000 is available in four editions:

  • Windows 2000 Professional
  • Windows 2000 Server
  • Windows 2000 Advanced Server
  • Windows 2000 Dataset Server

Windows Me

In September 2000, Microsoft released a successor to Windows 98, called Windows Me, short for “Millennium Edition”. It was the last DOS based operating system from Microsoft. Windows May introduced a new multimedia editing application called Windows Movie Maker, which came standard with Internet Explorer 5.5 and Windows Media Player 7, and debuted the first version of System Restore – a recovery utility that operates the system.

Enable you to revert the system files. Prehistory and time system restoration was a notable feature that will continue to evolve in all later versions of Windows. Windows Me was conceived as a fast-paced one-year project that bridged the gap between Windows 98 and Windows XP.

windows-meMany new features from the Windows Update site were available as updates to older versions of Windows (except for System Restore and Windows Movie Maker). Windows Me has been criticized for its lack of stability, as well as the lack of real-mode DOS features, to the point where it is called “error edition”. [23] Windows was the last operating system based on Windows 9x (single) kernel and MS-DOS.

Fundamentals of Windows XP, Server 2003 Series and Legacy PC

On October 25, 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP (code name “Whistler“). Merging Windows NT / 2000 and Windows 95/98 / May lines was finally achieved with Windows XP. XP uses the Windows NT 5.1 kernel, which marks the entry of Windows NT Core into the user market, so that the early release of the Windows 9X branch will not be limited to the security sector. Windows XPSP One was released in September 2002, SP2 was released in August 2004, and SP3 was released in April 2008. Service Pack 2 has significantly improved and encouraged the widespread adoption of XP in both home and business users. Windows XP from October 25, 2001 to January 30, 2007. Compared to the version, Microsoft’s flagship operating system lasted a long time when it was succeeded by Windows Vista.window-xp-desktop

Windows XP is available in multiple versions.

  • Windows XP Home Edition for Home Desktops and Laptops lacks features like Active Directory Domain, Remote Desktop Server and Internet Information Services Server.
  • Windows XP Home Edition N, as above, but without the default installation of Windows Media Player, as ordered by the EU
  • Home Edition for Windows XP Professional, Business and Power users has all the features.
  • Windows XP Professional N, as listed above, but without the default installation of Windows Media Player, as ordered by an EU
  • Windows XP Media Center Edition (MCE), released in October 2002 for desktops and notebooks to emphasize home entertainment. Contains all the features offered in Windows XP Professional and Windows Media Center. The later versions are the same but updated in Windows Media Center.
  • Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003
  • Windows XP Media Center Edition 2004
  • Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005, released October 12, 2004. Adding Windows XP Service Pack 2, the Royal Windows Theme, and joining the Windows Active Directory domain is disabled. Aquarium, Da Vinci, Nature and Space themes are retained from Windows XP Plus.
  • Windows XP Tablet PC Edition for Tablet PC
  • Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005
  • For embedded systems, Windows XP embedded
  • Windows XP Starter Edition for newer computer users in developing countries
  • The Windows XP Professional X64 Edition for Home and Workstation Systems was released on April 25, 2005, using 64-bit processors based on the x86-64 instructions that were originally AMD. Developed as AMD64. Intel calls its version Intel 64. Internally, XPX64 Server 2003 was a somewhat updated version of Windows based on the code base.
  • The Windows XP-64 bit edition is a version of the Itanium line of Intel processors. Maintain 32-bit compatibility with the full software emulator. This feature is almost identical to Windows XP Professional. It was shut down in September 2005 when the last seller of Atanium workstations stopped marketing the Atanium system under the name “Workstation”.

Windows Server 2003

On April 25, 2003, Microsoft launched Windows Server 2003, a notable update to Windows 2000 Server, which included many new security features, a new “Manage Your Server” wizard for specific roles. Simplifies machine configuration and better performance. Version number is NT 5.2. For server environment: Some services that are disabled by default for stability reasons are the most notable “Windows Audio” and “Themes” services. Users have to manually enable them to get the sound or look “Luna” according to Windows XP. Hardware acceleration for the display is also off by default. If users trust the display card driver, they will have to adjust the acceleration level automatically.

In December 2005, Microsoft released Windows Server 2003 R2, originally Windows Server 2003 with SP1 (Service Pack 1), with a paired package. The new features include a number of management features for branch offices, file servicing, printing and company-wide identity integration.windows-service-2003

Windows Server 2003 is available in six editions.

  • Web Edition (32 bit)
  • Enterprise Edition (32 and 64 bit)
  • Data Center Edition (32 and 64 bits)
  • Small Business Server (32 bit)
  • Storage server (OEM channel only)

Windows Server 2003 R2, an update to Windows Server 2003, was released on December 6, 2005 for manufacturing. It is divided into two CDs, one of which is Windows Server 2003 SP1 CD. The second CD includes many optional installation features for Windows Server 2003. The R2 update was released for all x86 and x64 versions, except Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition, which was not released for Itanium.

Windows XP X64 and Server 2003 X64 Edition

On April 25, 2005, Microsoft released Windows XP Professional X64 Edition and X64 Edition in Windows Server 2003, Standard, Enterprise and Data Center SKU. Windows XP Professional x64 Edition x86-64 is a version of Windows XP for personal computers. It is designed to use the extended 64-bit memory address space provided by the x86–64 architecture.

Windows XP Professional X64 Edition is based on the Windows Server 2003 code base, which removes server features and adds client features. Windows Server 2003 x64 and Windows XP Professional X64 Edition use the same kernel.

Windows XP Professional X64 Edition is not to be confused with Windows XP 64-bit Edition, as it was later designed for the Intel Itanium processor. During the early development stages, Windows XP Professional X64 Edition was renamed to Windows XP 64-bit Edition for 64-bit Extended System.

Windows Basics for Legacy PCs

In July 2005, Microsoft released a thin client version of Windows XP Service Pack 2, called Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PC (winFLP). This software is only available to guaranteed users. WinFLP aims to give companies the option of a viable upgrade for older PCs running Windows 95, 98, and me, which will be supported by patches and updates for many years to come. Most user applications will usually be run on a remote machine using terminal services or citrix.

Like Windows XP, it has some differences. For example, if the screen is set to 16-bit colors, the Windows 2000 Recycle Bin icon and some XP16-bit icons will be displayed. There is no solitaire like paint and some games.windows-fundamentals-for-legacy-pcs

Windows Home Server

Windows Home Server (codenamed Q, Quattro) is a server product based on Windows Server 2003, designed for users to use. The system was announced by Bill Gates on January 7, 2007. Windows Home Server can be configured and monitored using a console program that can be installed on the client’s PC. Features such as media sharing, local and remote drive backup and file duplication are all listed. The release of Windows Home Server Power Pack 3 added support to Windows Home Server for Windows 7.

Windows Vista and Server 2008

Windows Vista was released for business users on November 30, 2006 – users version on January 30, 2007. Windows Vista intended to increase security by introducing a new restricted user mode called User Account Control, replacing “Administrator by default”. Vista, the philosophy of Windows XP, was the target of much criticism and negative press, and was generally not valued, so Windows 7 is released relatively quickly.

windows-vista-desktop

An important difference between Vista and Windows, Windows 95 and later versions is that the original Start button was replaced with the Windows icon (called Start Arb) in the circle. Vista features new graphics, Windows Aero GUI, new applications (such as Windows Calendar, Windows DVD Maker, and some new games including Chess, Mahjong, and Portable Place), Internet Explorer 7, Windows Media Player 11, and includes a number of fundamental architectural changes. The version number for Windows Vista is NT 6.0. Since its release, Windows Vista has had two service packs.

Ships in six editions of Windows Vista:

  • Starters (only available in developing countries)
  • Home Basics
  • Home Premium
  • Business
  • Enterprise (only available for large business and enterprise)
  • Ultimate (combines both home premium and enterprise)

All editions (except Starter Edition) are currently available in both the 32-bit and 64-bit versions. The biggest advantage of the 64-bit version is breaking the 4GB memory barrier, which 32-bit computers can’t fully access.

Windows Server 2008

Windows Server 2008, released on February 27, 2008, was originally known as the Windows Server codename “Long Horn“. Windows Server 2008 is based on the first technical and security advances introduced with Windows Vista, and is significantly more modular than its predecessor, Windows Server 2003.

Windows Server 2008 ships in ten editions:

  • Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Server 2008 Dataseter Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows HPC Server 2008
  • Windows Web Server 2008 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Storage Server 2008 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Small Business Server 2008 (64 bit only)
  • Windows Essential Business Server 2008 (32-bit and 64-bit)
  • Windows Server 2008 for Itanium based systems
  • Windows Server 2008 Foundation Server

Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2

Windows 7 was released for manufacturing on July 22, 2009, and reached general retail availability on October 22, 2009. Earlier, this code name was known as Blackcomb and Vienna. In Windows 7, version number is NT 6.1. Since its release, Windows 7 has had a service pack.

windows-7-desktop

Some of the features of Windows 7 are faster booting, device stage, Windows PowerShell, low-cost user account control, multi-touch, and improved window management. [] 33] Features included in Windows 7 with Windows Vista include sidebars (although gadgets remain) and a number of programs that have been removed in favor of downloading their Windows Live counterparts.

Windows 7 ship in six editions:

  • Starters (available worldwide)
  • Home Basics
  • Home Premium
  • professional
  • Enterprise (volume license only available to business users)
  • Final

Some countries (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, UK, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland), other editions that lack some features, such as Windows Media Player, Windows Media Center, and Internet Explorer – to name a few. Was called by name. “Windows 7 N.” Microsoft is focused on selling Windows 7 Home Premium and Professionals. Except for the Starter Edition, all editions are available in both the 32-bit and 64-bit versions. Unlike the Vista related editions, the Professional and Enterprise Editions are the superset of the Home Premium Edition.

At the Professional Developers Conference (PDC) 2008, Microsoft also announced Windows Server 2008 R2, as Windows 7 Server varies. Windows Server 2008 R2 ship has only been shipped in 64-bit versions (x64 and Itanium).

Windows Thin PC

In 2010, Microsoft released Windows Thin PC or One TPC, a feature and size-reducing lockdown version of Windows 7 that was clearly designed to turn older PCs into slim clients. Gone WinTPC software is available to reassure users and relies on cloud computing in business networks. Wireless operation is supported because WinTPC has full wireless stack integration, but wireless operation may not be as good as operation over a wired connection.

Windows Home Server 2011

The Windows Home Server 2011 code was released on April 6, 2011 under the name ‘Val’. Windows Home Server 2011 is built on the Windows Server 2008 R2 code base and removes the drive extender drive polling technology from the release of the original Windows Home Server. Windows Home Server 2011 is considered a “major release”.  Its predecessor was built on Windows Server 2003. WHS 2011 only supports x86-64 hardware.

windows-home-server-2011Microsoft decided to shut down Windows Home Server 2011 on July 5, 2012, and added features to Windows Server 2012 accessories. Windows Home Server 2011 was supported until April 12, 2016.

 

Windows 8 and Server 2012

On October 26, 2012, Microsoft released Windows 8 to the public. An version of Windows RT runs on some chip devices on some systems with mobile 32-bit ARM (ARMV7) processors. Windows 8 has a user interface designed to make Windows easier to use for touch screen users. The interface introduced the Start Screen, and an updated Start Menu called the New Full Screen Application Platform. The desktop interface is also available for running Windows applications, although Windows RT will not run any desktop applications that are not part of the system.

On the Building Windows 8 blog, it was announced that a computer running Windows 8 could boot up much faster than Windows 7. New features include USB 3.0 support, the ability to run from a USB drive with Windows Store, Windows 2Go, and more. Windows 8 was given the kernel number NT 6.2, with its successor 8.1 getting the kernel number 6.3. So far, there is no service pack yet, although many people consider Windows 8.1 to be a service pack for Windows 8.

Windows 8 is available in the following editions:windows-8-and-server-2012

  • Windows 8
  • Windows 8 Pro
  • Windows 8 Enterprise
  • Windows RT

The first public preview of Windows Server 2012 and Microsoft also appeared at the 2011 Microsoft Worldwide Partner Conference.

Both the Windows 8 Release Preview and the Windows Server 2012 Release Candidate were released on May 31, 2012. Product development on Windows 8 was completed on August 1, 2012, and was released for manufacturing the same day. Windows Server 2012 went public on September 4, 2012. Windows 8 went on sale on October 26, 2012.

Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 were released on October 17, 2013. Windows 8.1 is only available for Windows 8 users as an update to the Windows Store and is also available for download for a clean installation. The update adds new options for resizing tiles directly on the Start screen.

Windows 10 and later Server versions

Windows 10 is the current release of the Microsoft Windows operating system. Released on September 30, 2014, it was released on July 29, 2015. [48] ​​It was distributed free of charge to Windows 7 and 8.1 users for one year after its release. Many new features like Cartana, Microsoft Edge web browser, the ability to view Windows Store apps as a window instead of a full screen, virtual desktops, optimized core apps, Continuum, and a unified settings app debuted in Windows 10. Microsoft has announced that Windows 10 will be the latest version of the series of operating systems released. Instead, Microsoft will release the latest operating system updates via download or in Windows Update, similar to providing updates in Mac OS.windows-10-and-later-serverversions

Stable releases

Year

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

1st Half

  

1703

1803

1903

2004

2nd Half

1507 – 1511

1607

1709

1809

1909

20H2

  • Version 1507 (Coded Threshold 1) was the original version of Windows 10 and was released in July 2015.
  • Version 1511, announced as the November Update and codenamed Threshold 2. It was released in November 2015. This update includes a number of visual opportunities, such as the ability to change the color of more permanent context menus and window title bars. Windows 10 can now be activated with the help of a product for Windows 7 and later for Windows 7, thus simplifying the activation process and making Windows 10 free for anyone. 7 or later, even after the free upgrade expires. Added a “Find My Device” feature, which will allow users to track their devices in case they get lost, much like Apple offers my iPhone’s search service. Controversially, “Featured Apps” are now shown in the Start menu. Microsoft Edge has added some opportunities, including the ability to sync the browser with tab previews and other devices running Windows 10. Dana version number: 10.0.10586.
  • Version 1607, was announced as the anniversary update and codenamed Redstone 1. This was the first of several planned updates to the “Red Stone” codename. Version 1607 means it was supposed to be launched in July 2016, but was delayed until August 2016. This version includes tons of new features, including more integration with Cortana, a dark theme, browser extension support for Microsoft Edge, Flash for clicking on default Flash, tab pinning, web notifications, Edge Ability to use the fingerprint sensor to sign in to apps and websites like Touch ID on iPhone for swipe navigation, and Windows Hello. Also included is Windows Ink, which enhances digital inking in many apps, and Windows Ink Workspace, which lists apps compatible with a pen, as well as a Sticky Notepad app and instant shortcuts to SketchPad. Microsoft, in partnership with Canonical, integrated the Ubuntu Bosch Shell with Linux through the Windows subsystem. Notable tweaks to this version of Windows 10 include the removal of the controversial password-sharing feature of Microsoft’s Wi-Fi Sense service, a slightly redesigned Start Menu, tablet mode working like Windows 8, managed emoji, lock Includes screen and calendar improvements. Integration in the taskbar, and the Blue Screen of Death now displays a QR code that users can quickly scan to find out what caused the error. This version of the kernel version of Windows 10 is 10.0.14393.
  •  
  • Version 1703, the creator update and codenamed Redstone 2 have been announced. Features of this update include a new Paint 3 application, which allows users to create and edit 3D models, integrating with “Mixed Reality” headsets developed by Microsoft’s HoloLens and other manufacturers. Is. , Windows My People, which allows users to support newly developed APIs such as Contacts, Xbox Game Broadcasting, WDDM 2.2, Dolby Atmos support, Settings app improvements, and Edge and Cortana improvements. This version also includes tweaks to system apps, such as the address bar in the registry editor, the default command line interface instead of the Windows PowerShell command prompt, and the Windows subsystem for Linux has been upgraded to support Ubuntu 16.04. This version of Windows 10 was released on April 11, 2017 as a free update.
  •  
  • Version 1709, has been announced as a Fall Creators Update and codenamed Redstone 3. It has introduced a new design language, the Flow Design System, and added it to calculators such as UWP apps. It also added new features to the Photos application, which was once available on Windows Movie Maker.
  • Version 1803, announced as an April 2018 update and codenamed Redstone 4, introduces a timeline that can be upgraded to a task view screen to display past activity and Users have the ability to restart. The corresponding icon on the taskbar was also changed to reflect this upgrade. Steroids were used to incorporate flow design into Windows, including adding acrylic transparency to taskbars and taskbar flyouts. The Settings app was also designed to have an acrylic left pane. Variable fonts introduced.
  •  
  • Version 1809, which has been announced as a Windows 10 October 2018 update and one of the new features has been renamed Red, introduced Dark Mode for File Explorer, linking Android phones with Windows 10. For your phone app, a new screenshot tool called Snap & Sketch, makes text enlargement easier to access, and clipboard history and cloud sync.
  • Version 1903, announced as the Windows 10 May 2019 update, codenamed 19H1. It includes a number of new features, including the addition of a light theme to Windows Shell and a new feature called Windows Sandbox, which allows users to run programs in a drop-down virtual window.
  • Version 1909, announced as the Windows 10 November 2019 update, codenamed 19H2. It unlocks many of the features that already existed, but hidden or disabled, such as the Auto-Spread menu at Start in 1903, one-drive integration of Windows Search by mouse over it, and creates events from the taskbar clock. ۔ Some PCs with version 1903 already enabled these features without installing 1909.
  • Version 2004, was announced as the Windows 10 May 2020 Update, codenamed 20H1. It introduces a number of new features such as renaming virtual desktops, GPU temperature control and disk type on the task manager, chat-based interface and window display for Cortana, and reinstalling the cloud. Quick Search (depending on the region) for the home search.
  • Version 20H2 has been announced as the Windows 10 October 2020 update, codenamed 20H2. It introduces resizing the Start menu panels, a graphic mode for the calculator, a process architecture view on the Task Manager details pane, and the provision of optional drivers from Windows Update and the location icon used on the taskbar.

Preview version

Dev Channel, it flies new features from the “RS_PRERELEASE” branch and is not associated with any particular release of Windows 10.

Windows Server 2016

Windows Server 2016 is a release of the Microsoft Windows Server operating system that was released on September 30, 2014. Windows Server 2016 was officially released on September 26-30, 2016 at Microsoft’s Ignite Conference.

Windows Server 2019

Windows Server 2019 is the release of the Microsoft Windows Server operating system.

Windows Server 2019 was announced on March 20, 2018, and the first preview version of Windows Inside was released the same day. It was released to the public on October 2, 2018.

On October 6, 2018, the distribution of Windows version 1809 (Build 17763) was suspended while Microsoft investigated the issue in which user data was deleted during the upgrade. This affected systems where the user profile folder (such as documents, music or photos) was moved to another location, but the data remained in the original location. Since Windows Server 2019 is based on the Windows version 1809 code base, it was also removed from the distribution at that time, but was re-released on November 13, 2018. The Software Product Lifecycle for Server 2019 was redesigned according to the new release. History