Microsoft Windows History

Microsoft Windows was announced by Bill Gates on November 10, 1983. Microsoft introduced Windows as a graphical user interface for MS-DOS, which was introduced two years ago. The product line evolved from the operating environment in the 1990s on two lines of development in a complete, modern operating system, each with its use base.

The first versions of Microsoft Windows (1.0 to 3.11) were graphical shells that ran on MS-DOS. Later, Windows 95, although still based on MS-DOS, had operating system, using a 16-bit DOS-based kernel and 32-bit user space. Windows 95 introduced several features that have been part of this product since its inception, including the Start Menu, Taskbar, and Windows Explorer (renaming File Explorer to Windows 8). In 1997, Microsoft released Internet Explorer 4, which included the (then) controversial Windows Desktop Update. It aims to integrate Internet Explorer and the web into the user interface and has also brought many new features to Windows, such as displaying JPEG images in Windows Explorer as desktop wallpaper and single window navigation.

Ability In 1998, Microsoft released Windows 98, which also included Windows Desktop Update and Internet Explorer 4 by default. The inclusion of Internet Explorer 4 and the desktop update led to a case of mistrust in the United States. Windows 98 also includes Plug and Play, which allows devices to work when plugged in without the need for a system reboot or manual configuration, and requires out-of-the-box USB support. The latest version of Windows, DOS-based, Windows Me was aimed at users and was released in 2000. It introduced System Restore, Help and Support Center, modern versions of Disk Defragmenter, and other system tools.

In 1993, Microsoft Windows released Windows NT 3.1, the first version of the newly developed Windows NT operating system. Unlike the Windows 9x series of operating systems, it is a fully 32-bit operating system. NT3.1 introduced NTFS, a file system designed to replace the old File Alteration Table (FAT) that used DOS and DOS-based Windows operating systems. In 1996, Windows NT 4.0 was released, which included a full 32-bit version of Windows Explorer specifically written to make the operating system work just like Windows 95. Windows NT was originally designed to be used on advanced systems and servers.

However, with the release of Windows 2000, Windows 95 and Windows 98 added many user-centric features, such as Windows Desktop. Update: Internet Explorer 5, USB support, and Windows Media Player. These user-oriented features were continued and further expanded in Windows XP, introducing a new theme called Luna, a more user-friendly interface, an updated version of Windows Media Player and Internet Explorer, and Extended features of Windows Me, such as Help and Support Center and System Restore. Windows Vista introduced features such as user account controls to protect the Windows operating system against computer viruses and other malicious software.

New features to replace Outlook Express include Windows Aero, the latest version of standard games (such as Solitaire), Windows Movie Maker, and Windows Mail. Nevertheless, Windows Vista has been criticized for its poor performance on older hardware and the current system requirements. Windows 7 followed two and a half years later, and despite the technically advanced system requirements, reviewers noted that it outperformed Windows Vista. Windows 7 also removed several additional features, such as Windows Movie Maker, Windows Photo Gallery, and Windows Mail, requiring users to download a separate Windows Live accessory to access these features and other online services.

Free upgrades to Windows 8 and Windows 8.1, Windows 8several a number of controversial changes, such as changing the Start menu with the Start screen and removing the Aero glass interface in favor of a flat, colorful interface. The introduction of the “Metro” app (later renamed the Universal Windows Platform App) and the Charm Bar user interface element, all of which received considerable criticism from reviewers.

The current version of Microsoft Windows, Windows 10, reintroduced the Start menu and enhanced the ability to run Universal Windows Platform apps in Windows instead of always in full screen. Windows 10 is very popular, with many reviewers saying that Windows 10 is what Windows 8 should be. Windows 10 also marks the latest version of the traditionally released Windows. Instead, “feature updates” are released twice a year with names such as “Creator Update” and “Fall Creator Update” that introduce new capabilities.

Windows 1.0

The first free version of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, was released on November 20, 1985, and gained little Beforety. Prior to the implementation of the Windows system, the project was abbreviated as “Interface Manager” – contrary to popular belief that this is the original name of Windows, and Rowland Hanson, head of marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company that the Windows name will be more attractive.

For consumersWindows 1.0 was not a complete operating system, but an “operating environment” that enhanced MS-DOS, and added to the flaws that followed. The first version of Microsoft Windows included a simple graphics painting program called Windows Paint. Write Windows, a simple word processor; an appointment calendar; a card filer; a notepad A watch A control panel; a computer terminal; Clipboard ؛ And Ram Driver also included a game called MS-DOS Executive and Reversi. Microsoft is working with Apple Computers to develop applications for Apple’s new Macintosh computer, which includes a graphical user interface. As part of related business negotiations, Microsoft licensed some aspects of the Macintosh user interface from Apple.

Later in the lawsuit, the district court designated these aspects as “screen displays.” In the development of Windows 1.0, Microsoft deliberately restricted borrowing of certain GUI elements from the Macintosh user interface in order to comply with its license. For example, Windows only showed “tiles” on the screen. That is, they could not overlap or dominate each other.

Windows 2.x

Microsoft Windows version 2 came out on December 9, 1987, and became a little more popular than its predecessor. Much of the popularity of Windows 2.0 came from the addition of Microsoft’s new graphical applications, Excel and Word for Windows, as “runtime versions.” They can be run from MS-DOS, execute Windows for the duration of their activity, and shut down Windows upon exit.

Microsoft Windows got a major boost when Aldus Page Maker appeared in the Windows version before it only ran on Macintosh. Some computer historians [who?] Predict the beginning of the success of Windows, the first major and non-Microsoft application for Windows.

Version 2.0x uses real-mode memory, which limits it to a maximum of 1 megabyte of memory. In such a configuration, it can run under another multi-tasker like DESQview, which used 286 safe modes.

Later, two new versions were released: Windows / 286 2.1 and Windows / 386 2.1. Like previous versions of Windows, Windows / 286 2.1 used real-mode memory, but was the first version to support high memory areas. Windows / 386 2.1 had a safe mode kernel with LIM-standard EMS emulation. All Windows and DOS-based applications at the time were in real mode, running on secure mode kernel using Virtual 8086 mode, new with 80386 processor

Version 2.03, and later 3.0, encountered Apple’s challenges regarding its overlapping Windows and other features. . Judge William Schwarzer dismissed all but 10 of Apple’s 189 claims of copyright infringement, ruling that most of the remaining 10 were above non-specific opinions.

Windows 3.0

Windows 3.0, released in May 1990, improves capabilities in native use. Introducing virtual memory allows users to optimize multi-task software based on older MS-DOS versions of Windows / 386.

The Windows 3.0 user interface ultimately resembles a serious competitor to a Macintosh computer user interface. Thanks to the VGA video card, PC had improved graphics up to that point, and Safe / Enhanced mode allowed Windows applications to use more memory in a more painful way than their DOS counterparts. Windows 3.0 can run in real, standard, or 386 enhanced modes, and was compatible with any Intel processor from 8086/8088 to 80286 and 80386. This is the first version to run Windows programs in safe mode, although the enhanced 386 mode kernel is an improved version of the safe mode kernel in Windows / 386.

Windows 3.0 got two updates. A few months after the introduction, Windows 3.0a was released as a maintenance release, fixing bugs and improving stability. A “multimedia” version of Windows 3.0, with multimedia extensions 1.0, was released in October 1991. It was built with “multimedia upgrade kits”, which included CD-ROM drives and sound cards, such as Creative Labs Sound Blaster Pro. This version was a forerunner of multimedia features that were available in Windows 3.1 (first released in April 1992) and later, and was part of Microsoft’s specification for multimedia PCs.

The above features and growing market support from application software developers made Windows 3.0 a huge success, selling 10 million copies in the two years before the release of version 3.1. Windows 3.0 has become a major source of revenue for Microsoft, prompting the company to reconsider its earlier plans. Support was discontinued on December 31, 2001.


Since the mid-1980s, Microsoft Windows and IBM have been collaborating to develop OS / 2 as a successor to DOS. OS / 2 will take full advantage of the aforementioned secure mode and up to 16 MB of memory of the Intel 80286 processor. OS / 2 1.0, released in 1987, supports conversion and multitasking and allows DOS executables to run.IBM licensed Windows GUI as a presentation manager for OS / 2, and both companies said it and Windows 2.0 would be almost identical. Presentation Manager was not available with OS / 2 until version 1.1, which was released in 1988.

Its API was not compatible with Windows. Version 1.2, released in 1989, introduced a new file system, HPFS, to replace the FAT file system. Controversy arose in the Microsoft / IBM relationship until the early 1990s. They collaborated to develop their PC operating system, and access each other’s code. Microsoft wanted to further develop Windows, while IBM wanted future work to be based on OS / 2. In an effort to resolve this tension, IBM and Microsoft agreed that IBM would develop OS / 2 2.0, replacing OS / 2 1.3 and Windows 3.0, while Microsoft OS S / 2 will replace 3.0, after which OS / 2 will be successful. 2 2.0.

However, the deal soon fell apart, and Microsoft / IBM ties were terminated. IBM continued to develop OS / 2, while Microsoft renamed it’s (as yet unknown) OS / 2 3.0 to Windows NT. Both retain the right to use OS / 2 and Windows technology until the end of the agreement. However, Windows NT has to be rewritten, mostly independently.

Following the provisional version 1.3, IBM released OS / 2 version 2.0 in 1992 to eliminate many of the remaining issues with the 1.x series. This was a huge improvement: it included a new, object-oriented GUI, Workplace Shell (WPS). , which included a desktop and was considered by many to be the best feature of OS / 2. Microsoft will imitate most of it later in Windows 95. Version 2.0 also provided a full 32-bit API, offered smooth multitasking, and took advantage of the 4GB of address space provided by Intel 80386.

However, most of the system has 16-bit codes internally which are required, among other things, device drivers should also have 16-bit codes. This was one of the reasons for the chronic shortage of OS / 2 drivers for modern devices. Version 2.0 can also run DOS and Windows 3.0 programs, as IBM retained the right to use DOS and Microsoft Windows code as a result of the breakdown.

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